Specialized education for preschool children with psychophysical disorders in Ukraine: formation and development
The study and analysis of the historical and pedagogical experience contribute to the effective organization of the modern pedagogical process, in general, and the specialized education of the preschool children, in particular.
The purpose of the article is to elucidate the historical and pedagogical issues of some educational practice aspects of children with physical and (or) mental disabilities in the pre-school age in our country. The article highlights the issues of public support of preschool children with mental and physical disabilities education in our country with a focus on the Soviet period of its development.
The following research methods are used in the article: analysis of the pedagogical literature and publications on the history of education; generalization of the trends of formation and development of specialized education of preschool children in our country within the period of 20-30s of the XXth century to our time.
Result. The study and analysis of the scientific materials showed that for a long time, it was traditional in society to focus on the treatment and segregation of children with developmental disabilities. In the national educational system, various forms of specific assistance to this category of children have been gradually introduced, which provided for the use of various rehabilitation and correctional techniques and teaching methods. In the course of the formation and development of the specialized preschool institutions network, the principles, methods, and approaches to the detection, correction, and prevention of deviations in the development of children have been substantiated, forming the traditions of correctional training and education of children of the preschool age. The author argues that until the middle of the twentieth century, the children with special educational needs studied separately from their peers in the specialized (correctional) educational institutions. At the present stage of the Ukrainian society development, specialized education has been replaced by a new, more progressive form of education, known as an inclusive education.